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The destruction affected at least 36 buildings and this coupled with the lava flows and the sulfur dioxide fumes, necessitated the evacuation of more than 2, local inhabitants from the neighborhoods.
This isolation , in combination with the diverse environment including extreme altitudes, tropical climates, and arid shorelines , allowed for the evolution of new endemic flora and fauna.
The islands are well known for the environmental diversity that occurs on high mountains within a trade winds field. On a single island, the climate around the coasts can range from dry tropical less than 20 inches or millimeters annual rainfall to wet tropical; on the slopes, environments range from tropical rainforest more than inches or 5, millimeters per year , through a temperate climate, to alpine conditions with a cold, dry climate.
The rainy climate impacts soil development, which largely determines ground permeability, affecting the distribution of streams and wetlands.
Bush on June 15, Most of Hawaii experiences only two seasons; the dry season runs from May to October and the wet season is from October to April.
Windward sides face cloud cover. Based on archaeological evidence, the earliest habitation of the Hawaiian Islands dates to around CE, probably by Polynesian settlers from the Marquesas Islands.
The date of the human discovery and habitation of the Hawaiian Islands is the subject of academic debate. The history of the islands is marked by a slow, steady growth in population and the size of the chiefdoms , which grew to encompass whole islands.
Cook named the archipelago "the Sandwich Islands" in honor of his sponsor John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich , publishing the islands' location and rendering the native name as Owyhee.
The form 'Owyhee' or 'Owhyhee' is preserved in the names of certain locations in the American part of the Pacific Northwest, among them Owyhee County and Owyhee Mountains in Idaho , named after three native Hawaiian members of a trapping party who went missing in the area.
It is very possible that Spanish explorers arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in the 16th century, two hundred years before Cook's first documented visit in Some scholars have dismissed these claims due to a lack of credibility.
The exact route was kept secret to protect the Spanish trade monopoly against competing powers. As he prepared for departure after his second visit in , a quarrel ensued as Cook took temple idols and fencing as "firewood",  and a minor chief and his men stole a boat from his ship.
The ship departed without retrieving the stolen boat. After Cook's visit and the publication of several books relating his voyages, the Hawaiian Islands attracted many European visitors: explorers, traders, and eventually whalers, who found the islands to be a convenient harbor and source of supplies.
These visitors introduced diseases to the once-isolated islands, causing the Hawaiian population to drop precipitously. By , disease, famine and wars between the chiefs killed more than half of the Native Hawaiian population.
It is said that leprosy was introduced by Chinese workers by , and as with the other new infectious diseases, it proved damaging to the Hawaiians.
During the s, and s, chiefs often fought for power. After a series of battles that ended in , all inhabited islands were subjugated under a single ruler, who became known as King Kamehameha the Great.
He established the House of Kamehameha , a dynasty that ruled the kingdom until They used their influence to end many traditional practices of the people.
Other missionaries and their descendants became active in commercial and political affairs, leading to conflicts between the monarchy and its restive American subjects.
The best known were Father Damien and Mother Marianne Cope , both of whom were canonized in the early 21st century as Roman Catholic saints.
Lunalilo died the next year, also without naming an heir. After riots broke out, the United States and Britain landed troops on the islands to restore order.
Drafted by white businessmen and lawyers, the document stripped the king of much of his authority. It established a property qualification for voting that effectively disenfranchised most Hawaiians and immigrant laborers and favored the wealthier, white elite.
Resident whites were allowed to vote but resident Asians were not. As the Constitution was signed under threat of violence, it is known as the Bayonet Constitution.
Stevens , responding to a request from the Committee of Safety, summoned a company of U. The Queen's soldiers did not resist. According to historian William Russ, the monarchy was unable to protect itself.
Stevens conspired with U. Controversy ensued in the following years as the Queen tried to regain her throne. The U. Congress conducted an independent investigation, and on February 26, , submitted the Morgan Report , which found all parties, including Minister Stevens—with the exception of the Queen—"not guilty" and not responsible for the coup.
After William McKinley won the U. McKinley was open to persuasion by U. He met with three non-native annexationists: Lorrin A.
Senate never ratified the treaty. Despite the opposition of most native Hawaiians,  the Newlands Resolution was used to annex the Republic to the U.
The Newlands Resolution was passed by the House on June 15, , by votes in favor to 91 against, and by the Senate on July 6, , by a vote of 42 to Despite several attempts to become a state, Hawaii remained a territory for 60 years.
Plantation owners and capitalists, who maintained control through financial institutions such as the Big Five , found territorial status convenient because they remained able to import cheap, foreign labor.
Such immigration and labor practices were prohibited in many states. Hawaiian sugarcane plantation owners began to recruit experienced, unemployed laborers in Puerto Rico.
The first wave arrived between and ; the second wave began in after President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Immigration and Nationality Act of , which removed racial and national barriers and resulted in significantly altering the demographic mix in the U.
Eager to gain full representation in Congress and the Electoral College, residents actively campaigned for statehood. President Dwight D.
Eisenhower signed into law. Later, state programs promoted Hawaiian culture. Coincidentally, the Wiki knowledge revolution that transformed the Internet took its name from a Hawaiian word.
After Europeans and mainland Americans first arrived during the Kingdom of Hawaii period, the overall population of Hawaii, until that time composed solely of indigenous Hawaiians, fell dramatically.
The indigenous Hawaiian population succumbed to foreign diseases, declining from , in the s, to 60, in the s, to 24, in The unmixed indigenous Hawaiian population has still not restored itself to its , pre-contact level.
As of [update] , Hawaii had an estimated population of 1,,; a decrease of 7, from the previous year and an increase of 60, 4.
This includes a natural increase of 48, 96, births minus 47, deaths and an increase due to net migration of 16, people into the state.
Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 30,; migration within the country produced a net loss of 13, people.
The center of population of Hawaii is located on the island of O'ahu. Large numbers of Native Hawaiians have moved to Las Vegas , which has been called the "ninth island" of Hawaii.
Hawaii has a de facto population of over 1. The average projected lifespan of people born in Hawaii in is According to the United States Census, Hawaii had a population of 1,, The state's population identified as Hawaii has the highest percentage of Asian Americans and multiracial Americans and the lowest percentage of White Americans of any state.
It is the only state where people who identify as Asian Americans are the largest ethnic group. In , Over , 8.
Mexican Americans number over 35, 2. Eurasian Americans are a prominent mixed-race group, numbering about 66, 4.
The multi-racial population outnumbers the non-Hispanic white population by about 10, people. The five largest European ancestries in Hawaii are German 7.
About Hawaii is a majority-minority state. It was expected to be one of three states that will not have a non-Hispanic white plurality in ; the other two are California and New Mexico.
The third group of foreigners to arrive in Hawaii were from China. Chinese workers on Western trading ships settled in Hawaii starting in In , the first American missionaries arrived to preach Christianity and teach the Hawaiians Western ways.
Many are descendants of immigrants brought to work on the sugarcane plantations in the mid-to-late 19th century. The first Japanese immigrants arrived in Hawaii on June 19, They were not approved by the then-current Japanese government because the contract was between a broker and the Tokugawa shogunate —by then replaced by the Meiji Restoration.
Almost 13, Portuguese migrants had arrived by ; they also worked on the sugarcane plantations. English and Hawaiian are listed as Hawaii's official languages in the state's constitution, in Article XV, Section 4.
As of the Census, After English, other languages popularly spoken in the state are Tagalog , Japanese and Ilocano. Significant numbers of European immigrants and their descendants also speak their native languages; the most numerous are German, Portuguese, Italian and French.
The Hawaiian language has about 2, native speakers, about 0. According to Schütz, the Marquesans colonized the archipelago in roughly CE  and were later followed by waves of seafarers from the Society Islands , Samoa and Tonga.
Before the arrival of Captain James Cook, the Hawaiian language had no written form. That form was developed mainly by American Protestant missionaries between and who assigned to the Hawaiian phonemes letters from the Latin alphabet.
Interest in Hawaiian increased significantly in the late 20th century. With the help of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, specially designated immersion schools in which all subjects would be taught in Hawaiian were established.
The University of Hawaii developed a Hawaiian language graduate studies program. Municipal codes were altered to favor Hawaiian place and street names for new civic developments.
Hawaiian distinguishes between long and short vowel sounds. It is written as a symbol similar to the apostrophe or left-hanging opening single quotation mark.
During the 19th century, the increase in immigration—mainly from China, Japan, Portugal—especially from the Azores and Madeira , and Spain—catalyzed the development of a hybrid variant of English known to its speakers as pidgin.
By the early 20th century, pidgin speakers had children who acquired it as their first language. HCE speakers use some Hawaiian words without those words being considered archaic.
For example, tuna fish is often called by its Hawaiian name, ahi. HCE speakers have modified the meanings of some English words.
For example, "aunty" and "uncle" may either refer to any adult who is a friend or be used to show respect to an elder. Syntax and grammar follow distinctive rules different from those of General American English.
For example, instead of "it is hot today, isn't it? During the surfing boom in Hawaii, HCE was influenced by surfer slang.
Some HCE expressions, such as brah and da kine , have found their ways elsewhere through surfing communities. Religion in Hawaii .
Christianity is the most widespread religion in Hawaii, mainly represented by various Protestants , Roman Catholics and Mormons.
The second-most popular religion is Buddhism , especially among the archipelago's Japanese community. Unaffiliated account for one-quarter of the population.
When the Hawaiian Reformed Catholic Church, a province of the Anglican Communion , was merged into the Episcopal Church in the s following the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, it became the seat of the Episcopal Diocese of Hawaii.
The largest denominations by number of adherents were the Roman Catholic Church with , adherents in ,  the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 68, adherents in ,  the United Church of Christ with congregations and 20, members, and the Southern Baptist Convention with congregations and 18, members.
According to data provided by religious establishments, religion in Hawaii in was distributed as follows:  .
A Pew poll found that the religious composition was as follows:. Note: Births in this table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
Hawaii has had a long history of LGBT identities. Cook's second lieutenant and co-astronomer James King observed that "all the chiefs had them", and recounts that Cook was actually asked by one chief to leave King behind, considering the role a great honor.
How would you know if he was going to be the warrior that would protect you at all costs, if he wasn't your lover?
Nonetheless, in Hawaiian language publications its metaphorical meaning can still mean either "friend" or "lover" without stigmatization. The number of same-sex couple households in was 3,; a The history of Hawaii's economy can be traced through a succession of dominant industries: sandalwood ,  whaling ,  sugarcane, pineapple , the military, tourism and education.
Since statehood in , tourism has been the largest industry, contributing These industries play a small role in the Hawaiian economy, due to the shipping distance to viable markets, such as the West Coast of the contiguous U.
The state's food exports include coffee, macadamia nuts, pineapple, livestock, sugarcane and honey. By weight, honey bees may be the state's most valuable export.
Hawaii's relatively consistent climate has attracted the seed industry, which is able to test three generations of crops per year on the islands, compared with one or two on the mainland.
Tax is collected by the Hawaii Department of Taxation. Hawaii residents pay the most per person in state taxes in the United States. The Hawaii Tax Foundation considers the state's tax burden too high, which it says contributes to higher prices and the perception of an unfriendly business climate.
State Senator Sam Slom says state taxes are comparatively higher than other states because the state government handles education, health care, and social services that are usually handled at a county or municipal level in most other states.
The cost of living in Hawaii, specifically Honolulu, is high compared to that of most major U. While some online stores offer free shipping on orders to Hawaii, many merchants exclude Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico and certain other U.
Average electricity prices in October The median home value in Hawaii in the U. The sale price of single family homes in Hawaii was the highest of any U.
Hawaii's very high cost of living is the result of several interwoven factors of the global economy in addition to domestic U.
Like other regions with desirable weather throughout the year, such as areas of California , Arizona and Florida , Hawaii's residents can be considered to be subject to a " Sunshine tax ".
This situation is further exacerbated by the natural factors of geography and world distribution that lead to higher prices for goods due to increased shipping costs, a problem which many island states and territories suffer from as well.
The higher costs to ship goods across an ocean may be further increased by the requirements of the Jones Act , which generally requires that goods be transported between places within the U.
Jones Act-compliant vessels are often more expensive to build and operate than foreign equivalents, which can drive up shipping costs.
While the Jones Act does not affect transportation of goods to Hawaii directly from Asia, this type of trade is nonetheless not common; this is a result of other primarily economic reasons including additional costs associated with stopping over in Hawaii e.
Therefore, Hawaii relies on receiving most inbound goods on Jones Act-qualified vessels originating from the U. The aboriginal culture of Hawaii is Polynesian.
Hawaii represents the northernmost extension of the vast Polynesian Triangle of the south and central Pacific Ocean.
While traditional Hawaiian culture remains as vestiges in modern Hawaiian society, there are re-enactments of the ceremonies and traditions throughout the islands.
Plant and animal food sources are imported from around the world for agricultural use in Hawaii. Poi , a starch made by pounding taro , is one of the traditional foods of the islands.
Spam musubi is an example of the fusion of ethnic cuisine that developed on the islands among the mix of immigrant groups and military personnel.
In the s, a group of chefs developed Hawaii regional cuisine as a contemporary fusion cuisine. Some key customs and etiquette in Hawaii are as follows: when visiting a home, it is considered good manners to bring a small gift for one's host for example, a dessert.
Thus, parties are usually in the form of potlucks. Most locals take their shoes off before entering a home. It is customary for Hawaiian families, regardless of ethnicity, to hold a luau to celebrate a child's first birthday.
It is also customary at Hawaiian weddings, especially at Filipino weddings, for the bride and groom to do a money dance also called the pandanggo.
Print media and local residents recommend that one refer to non-Hawaiians as "locals of Hawaii" or "people of Hawaii". Hawaiian mythology includes the legends, historical tales, and sayings of the ancient Hawaiian people.
It is considered a variant of a more general Polynesian mythology that developed a unique character for several centuries before circa It is associated with the Hawaiian religion , which was officially suppressed in the 19th century but was kept alive by some practitioners to the modern day.
Polynesian mythology is the oral traditions of the people of Polynesia, a grouping of Central and South Pacific Ocean island archipelagos in the Polynesian triangle together with the scattered cultures known as the Polynesian outliers.
Polynesians speak languages that descend from a language reconstructed as Proto-Polynesian that was probably spoken in the area around Tonga and Samoa in around BCE.
Prior to the 15th century, Polynesian people migrated east to the Cook Islands , and from there to other island groups such as Tahiti and the Marquesas.
The Polynesian languages are part of the Austronesian language family. Many are close enough in terms of vocabulary and grammar to be mutually intelligible.
There are also substantial cultural similarities between the various groups, especially in terms of social organization, childrearing, horticulture, building and textile technologies.
Their mythologies in particular demonstrate local reworkings of commonly shared tales. There are many Hawaiian state parks.
Hawaiian magazines include Hana Hou! The music of Hawaii includes traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop.
Hawaii's musical contributions to the music of the United States are out of proportion to the state's small size. Styles such as slack-key guitar are well known worldwide, while Hawaiian-tinged music is a frequent part of Hollywood soundtracks.
Hawaii also made a major contribution to country music with the introduction of the steel guitar. Traditional Hawaiian folk music is a major part of the state's musical heritage.
The Hawaiian people have inhabited the islands for centuries and have retained much of their traditional musical knowledge.
Their music is largely religious in nature, and includes chanting and dance music. Hawaiian music has had an enormous impact on the music of other Polynesian islands ; according to Peter Manuel, the influence of Hawaiian music a "unifying factor in the development of modern Pacific musics".
Surfing has been a central part of Polynesian culture for centuries. Since the late 19th century, Hawaii has become a major site for surfists from around the world.
Tourism is an important part of the Hawaiian economy. In , according to state government data, there were more than 6. The major holidays are the most popular times for outsiders to visit, especially in the winter months.
Substantial numbers of Japanese tourists still visit the islands but have now been surpassed by Chinese and Koreans due to the collapse of the value of the Yen and the weak Japanese economy.
The average Japanese stays only five days, while other Asians stay over 9. Hawaii hosts numerous cultural events.
The annual Merrie Monarch Festival is an international Hula competition. Under the state's plan, businesses are required to provide insurance to employees who work more than twenty hours per week.
Heavy regulation of insurance companies helps reduce the cost to employers. Due in part to heavy emphasis on preventive care, Hawaiians require hospital treatment less frequently than the rest of the United States, while total health care expenses measured as a percentage of state GDP are substantially lower.
Hawaii has the only school system within the U. Policy decisions are made by the fourteen-member state Board of Education , which sets policy and hires the superintendent of schools, who oversees the state Department of Education.
Public elementary, middle and high school test scores in Hawaii are below national averages on tests mandated under the No Child Left Behind Act.
The Hawaii Board of Education requires all eligible students to take these tests and report all student test scores.
This may have unbalanced the results that reported in August that of schools across the state, failed to reach federal minimum performance standards in mathematics and reading.
Hawaii has the highest rates of private school attendance in the nation. During the — school year, Hawaii public and charter schools had an enrollment of ,,  while private schools had 37, Pacific Buddhist Academy , the second Buddhist high school in the U.
Independent and charter schools can select their students, while the public schools are open to all students in their district.
The Kamehameha Schools are the only schools in the U. Kona hosts the University of the Nations , which is not an accredited university. A system of state highways encircles each main island.
Narrow, winding roads and congestion in populated places can slow traffic. Each major island has a public bus system. The commercial aviation airport offers intercontinental service to North America, Asia, Australia and Oceania.
Hawaiian Airlines , Mokulele Airlines and go! Island Air and Pacific Wings serve smaller airports. These airlines also provide air freight services between the islands.
On May 30, , the airport was officially renamed as the Daniel K. Senator Daniel K. Until air passenger services began in the s,  private boats were the sole means of traveling between the islands.
Seaflite operated hydrofoils between the major islands in the mids. Protests and legal problems over environmental impact statements ended the service, though the company operating Superferry has expressed a wish to recommence ferry services in the future.
At one time Hawaii had a network of railroads on each of the larger islands that transported farm commodities and passengers.
The standard gauge in the U. Traffic on this line was busy enough for signals to be used to facilitate movement of trains and to require wigwag signals at some railroad crossings for the protection of motorists.
The main line was officially abandoned in , although part of it was bought by the U. Navy and operated until Kamehameha III chose the largest city, Honolulu, as his capital because of its natural harbor—the present-day Honolulu Harbor.
Hawaii has the fewest local governments among U. All local governments are generally administered at the county level.
The only incorporated area in the state is Honolulu County , a consolidated city—county that governs the entire island of Oahu.
The mayors are all elected in nonpartisan elections. Kalawao County has no elected government,  and as mentioned above there are no local school districts and instead all local public education is administered at the state level by the Hawaii Department of Education.
The remaining local governments are special districts. The state government of Hawaii is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from the kingdom era of Hawaiian history.
As codified in the Constitution of Hawaii , there are three branches of government : executive, legislative and judicial.
The executive branch is led by the Governor of Hawaii , who is assisted by the Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii , both of whom are elected on the same ticket.
The governor is the only state public official elected statewide; all others are appointed by the governor. The lieutenant governor acts as the Secretary of State.
The governor and lieutenant governor oversee twenty agencies and departments from offices in the State Capitol. The official residence of the governor is Washington Place.
The legislative branch consists of the bicameral Hawaii State Legislature , which is composed of the member Hawaii House of Representatives led by the Speaker of the House , and the member Hawaii Senate led by the President of the Senate.
The Legislature meets at the State Capitol. The unified judicial branch of Hawaii is the Hawaii State Judiciary.
Representative Ed Case HI Representative Tulsi Gabbard HI Hawaii is represented in the United States Congress by two senators and two representatives.
As of [update] , all four seats are held by Democrats. Former representative Ed Case was elected in to the 1st congressional district.
Tulsi Gabbard represents the 2nd congressional district , representing the rest of the state, which is largely rural and semi-rural.
He was appointed to the office on December 26, , by Governor Neil Abercrombie , following the death of former senator Daniel Inouye.
The state's junior senator is Mazie Hirono , the former representative from the second congressional district. Hirono is the first female Asian American senator and the first Buddhist senator.
Hawaii incurred the biggest seniority shift between the th and th Congresses. The state went from a delegation consisting of senators who were first and twenty-first in seniority [g] to their respective replacements, relative newcomers Schatz and Hirono.
Since gaining statehood and participating in its first election in , Hawaii has supported Democrats in all but two presidential elections; and , both of which were landslide reelection victories for Republicans Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan respectively.
In Hawaii's statehood tenure, only Minnesota has supported Republican candidates fewer times in presidential elections. Hawaii has not elected a Republican to represent the state in the U.
Senate since Hiram Fong in ; since , both of the state's U. Senators have been Democrats. Every county supported the Democratic candidate.
In , favorite son candidate senator Hiram Fong of Hawaii sought the Republican presidential nomination, while Patsy Mink ran in the Oregon primary in Honolulu-born Barack Obama , then serving as United States Senator from Illinois , was elected the 44th President of the United States on November 4, and was re-elected for a second term on November 6, He was the third Hawaii-born candidate to seek the nomination of a major party and the first presidential nominee from Hawaii.
Hawaii is the only state in the United States that does not maintain a separate, state-wide police force. Instead, state law enforcement responsibilities are taken on by the municipal police agencies of the four main islands.
Forensic services for all agencies in the state are provided by the Honolulu Police Department. While Hawaii is internationally recognized as a state of the United States while also being broadly accepted as such in mainstream understanding, the legality of this status has been questioned in U.
District Court,  the U. Political organizations seeking some form of sovereignty for Hawaii have been active since the late 19th century.
Generally, their focus is on self-determination and self-governance , either for Hawaii as an independent nation in many proposals, for "Hawaiian nationals" descended from subjects of the Hawaiian Kingdom or declaring themselves as such by choice , or for people of whole or part native Hawaiian ancestry in an indigenous " nation to nation " relationship akin to tribal sovereignty with US federal recognition of Native Hawaiians.
The pro-federal recognition Akaka Bill drew substantial opposition among Hawaiian residents in the s. The Hawaiian sovereignty movement views the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii in as illegal, and views the subsequent annexation of Hawaii by the United States as illegal; the movement seeks some form of greater autonomy for Hawaii, such as free association or independence from the United States.
The Apology Resolution passed by US Congress in is cited as a major impetus by the movement for Hawaiian sovereignty.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. State of the United States of America in Polynesia. For other uses, see Hawaii disambiguation. For the Hawaiian islands, see Hawaiian Islands.
Not to be confused with Hawaiki , Kawaii , Kauai , or Hawai disambiguation. State in the United States. Mauna Kea    . Pacific Ocean .
See also: List of islands of Hawaii. Main article: Hawaii hotspot. Main article: History of Hawaii. Main article: Ancient Hawaii.
Main article: Kingdom of Hawaii. See also: Hawaii statistical areas. Main article: Hawaiian language. Main article: Hawaiian Pidgin.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
May Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Hawaii locations by per capita income. Main article: Culture of the Native Hawaiians.
Main article: Cuisine of Hawaii. Main article: Customs and etiquette in Hawaii. Main article: Hawaiian mythology. Main article: Polynesian mythology.
Main article: List of Hawaiian state parks. Main article: Literature in Hawaii. Main article: Music of Hawaii. Play media. Main article: Tourism in Hawaii.
Main article: Hawai'i Department of Education. See also: List of elementary schools in Hawaii , List of middle schools in Hawaii , and List of high schools in Hawaii.
See also: List of colleges and universities in Hawaii. See also: List of counties in Hawaii. Further information: Category:State agencies of Hawaii.
Senator Brian Schatz. Senator Mazie Hirono. Main article: Politics of Hawaii. Main articles: Hawaiian sovereignty movement , List of Hawaiian sovereignty movement groups , and Legal status of Hawaii.
Hawaii portal United States portal Islands portal. Hawaii resident is the preferred local form to refer to state residents in general regardless of ethnicity.
Hawaii may also be used adjectivally. The Associated Press Stylebook , 42nd ed. In contexts where "to be" is used in General American , "to stay" is preferred.
French n'est-ce pas? Senator Daniel Akaka , who ranked 21st of the Senate's one hundred members, retired in January after serving twenty-three years in the Senate.
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